Gene Transfer through Gut Bacteria

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Gene Transfer through Gut Bacteria

Postby Tom Hendricks » Wed Aug 14, 2013 4:18 pm

Bacteria Gene Transfer and natural selection from mother to child - a new way of selection?
When a child is born, it's gut gets the flora of the mother. I suggest this is a gene transfer from mother to child - but not directly, but through bacteria gene transfer.

Could there be natural selection on this means of gene transfer? Is this outside of the genome, genes? Does what the mother eat, or her health, under one birth so different from another birth, that one child has a better gut flora?

There are a lot of questions here. Do we have a new source of mutation? evolution? etc.?
Grandmother passes her gut biota to Mother that passes it to her daughter – etc. A sort of female transfer of bacteria genes?

Could this be a gene transfer, not of human genes, but of symbiotic gut bacteria genes passed from human mother to child (and from daughter to her child).

Note too that this genome transfer from gut to gut, doesn't have to be incorporated into the human genome - that's the challenging discovery here - they have a gut line through females.

This goes further - and becomes somewhat Landmarkian in that the bacterial pop changes during life. Not a longer neck on that giraffe, but a better gut biota on the mom!!! Then too this would apply to a wide range of animals.

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Here's some background (mostly from wikipedia)
Acquisition of gut flora in human infants[edit]

The gastrointestinal tract of a normal fetus is sterile. During birth and rapidly thereafter, bacteria from the mother and the surrounding environment colonize the infant's gut. Immediately after vaginal delivery, babies may have bacterial strains derived from the mothers' feces in the upper gastrointestinal tract.[21] ... After birth, environmental, oral and cutaneous bacteria are readily transferred from the mother to the infant through suckling, kissing, and caressing. All infants are initially colonized by large numbers of E. coli and streptococci. Within a few days, bacterial numbers reach 108 to 1010 per gram of feces.[22][24] During the first week of life, these bacteria create a reducing environment favorable for the subsequent bacterial succession of strict anaerobic species mainly belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Ruminococcus.[25] ...
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The major factors that influence the colonization of gut flora in the infant include the status of the mother’s gut flora (as this will be passed to the infant), the method of delivery, type of feeding, and antibiotic use. There are also other factors that play a role, including the infant’s overall environment, hygiene, and perinatal stress. The colonization of the gut flora at the beginning of life is significant because the gut flora impacts the development of the immune system, has a major role in immune system functioning (80-85% of the immune system is in the gut), and thereby influences the process by which autoimmune and metabolic disease occurs. Disease begins in the gut and it starts at the very beginning of life!
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In the unborn child, it was once believed that the gut was sterile. However, recent research suggests that colonization of the gut begins when the unborn child swallows amniotic fluid containing microbes from the mother’s gut. The majority of the colonization of the gut occurs during the birthing process when the infant is further exposed to a large amount of bacteria from the mother. If the mother’s flora is damaged or imbalanced, this will be passed on to the infant. ...
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The feeding method, or diet, of an infant also influences the gut flora by providing a source of nutrition that allows for the growth and function of flora and providing a source of continued colonization of microorganisms from the environment. For babies that are breastfed, bacteria from the feeding environment will be transferred from the mother’s skin and milk ducts. For those that are bottle-fed, bacteria will be transferred from the dried powder and the equipment and water used to prepare the formula. Breastfed newborns carry a more stable and uniform population of gut flora compared to bottle-fed infants.... One of the main reasons behind why breastfeeding is so health-promoting is because of its effects on the gut flora.... The type of infant feeding is critical in influencing the composition of the gut flora, thereby affecting development of the immune system and long-term health.
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This article seems to fit: Breastfeeding linked to healthy Infant Gut: Bacterial Colonization Leads to Changes in the Infant’s Expression of Genes.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 234641.htm
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Tom Hendricks
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Re: Gene Transfer through Gut Bacteria

Postby Tom Hendricks » Fri Aug 23, 2013 9:51 am

This study is very interesting - if true it means that cesarean births that don't get the needed gut bacteria that vaginal births do, might compensate through the breast milk of the mother.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 091026.htm

I tend to think that this basic birth bacteria helps set up the immune system, the food in system, and the waste out system. Remember that as antibodies from the mother's breast milk decrease at six months in, the child's defense system begins to kick in. Looks like best health is when the two overlap and what is lost from the mother is gained by the child's developing system.
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Re: Gene Transfer through Gut Bacteria

Postby Tom Hendricks » Sun Oct 12, 2014 9:33 pm

More speculation on the impact of good and bad bacteria on humans.

Could an unconscious fear of infection be a driving force in human behavior? If so how did it evolve?

This article from Psychology Today suggests a strong unconscious fear of infection.
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex ... ocial-life

Could sexual relations partly be to not only mix genes, but mix each others bacteria in a way that helps each support the good bacteria they have, defend against the bad that they have, and trade bacteria in a way that makes each more healthy and compatible with the other?
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Re: Gene Transfer through Gut Bacteria

Postby Tom Hendricks » Tue Oct 14, 2014 9:00 am

Separation Anxiety/ Stranger Anxiety = Infection trauma in infants?
Both Separation anxiety and stranger anxiety may partly be based on the body reacting to both good and bad bacteria.
Separation anxiety: May be in part the infant’s fear of loosing his mother’s immune system, while his is still developing
Stranger anxiety: May be in part, the infant’s fear of stranger germs.
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Re: Gene Transfer through Gut Bacteria

Postby CindyS » Wed Feb 18, 2015 12:28 am

Gut microbes, which help humans degrade otherwise indigestible plant material, acquire some crucial digestive enzyme genes from the bacteria in the food we eat, according to a study published this week in Nature. This new finding provides an example of horizontal gene transfer by which diet can influence the genetic diversity and functionality of the human gut microbiome.
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Re: Gene Transfer through Gut Bacteria

Postby abaddon1234 » Fri Oct 07, 2016 11:45 pm

functionality of the human gut microbiome.

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