The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Mon Apr 28, 2014 10:31 am

More ideas on why we sleep - The 2nd half of a daily digestion cycle.
CONTENTS
The clue to why we sleep
Starting with the two basics: food in and waste out
Day/Night cycle of digestion.
Night is NREM and REM
NREM is for nurturing in.
REM is for waste out.
Some Quotes

THE CLUE :When I found out that parasympathetic nervous system is associated with NREM sleep, and sympathetic nervous system with REM (see quotes below) that suggested some very exciting ideas on why we sleep and why there are two types of sleep, NREM and REM sleep

Let's start with the most basic life processes and build from there.

Start with the premise that all life processes are evolving out of the most basic two needs of food in and waste out.*
Then I see sleep as simply a key part of that daily digestion cycle:

--------------------
DAY/NIGHT DIGESTION CYCLE
---------------------
Day = food in, eat and digest

Night / Sleep =
NREM = nurturing from digested food (parasympathetic processes / rest and digest / small intestines )
REM = waste out from digested food (sympathetic processes / fight and flight / colon

Wake = bowel movement and repeat daily process.
---------------------

Most of sleep is NREM (80%)/ REM (20%).
Sleep alternates NREM and REM, as if food is being moved along the alimentary tract, with more NREM at the first of sleep, and more REM at the end of a night's sleep.

-----------
-----------
Some studies suggest that the nervous system splits in sleep like this:

NREM - parasympathetic division. the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed"
REM - sympathetic division. sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for stimulating activities associated with the fight-or-flight response.

QUOTE: the sympathetic nervous system is active in REM Sleep, and persons in REM Sleep exhibit elevated heart and respiratory rates.

QUOTE: non-REM sleep is the deepest, the one in which we sleep the most soundly. The EEG trace is dominated by delta waves, and overall neuronal activity is at its lowest. The brain’s temperature is also at its lowest, and breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure are all reduced under the influence of the parasympathetic nervous system.

--------------
* Reproduction is the 3rd most basic need
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Fri May 02, 2014 8:50 am

Take these sleep ideas one step further:
This also suggests
that if NREM nurtures, then during NREM that part of the mind/body that nurtures, is the part that is awake.
that if REM gets out waste, then during REM that part of the mind/body that gets out waste, is the part that is awake.
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Sat May 03, 2014 9:43 am

When the Gut Biome is Not Yet Set up in the newborn child or What's the importance of allowing a gut biome to fully set up in the newborn.
The newborn needs both vaginal birth and breast milk to transfer all the mother's good gut bacteria into the infant.
Then the child needs time to allow that gut bacteria to settle and multiply.
(Note the infants infection fighting process is not yet active in the first 6 months and most immunity comes from the mother. Most likely this is to allow the good gut bacteria to take hold without the child's defense system attacking it.

But if the child doesn't have vaginal birth, or doesn't have breast milk and has formula instead, or doesn't receive breast milk long enough; he does not have the necessary gut biome to
1. help to excrete out waste (anal trauma)
2. help to digest first foods. (oral trauma)
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Mon May 19, 2014 1:24 pm

Now this is very interesting, specially when so many people are having trouble with being overweight. I found out that breast milk also supplies insulin!
Perhaps without breast milk, or weaning too soon, the infant does not get the insulin it needs, in the correct amount, to allow him to best use the glucose he needs during development and into being an adult!
Quote
We have shown that human milk contains insulin in substantial concentrations, while insulin is barely detectable (if at all) in infant formulas. Orally administered insulin was demonstrated to promote gut maturation and to reduce intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Furthermore, oral insulin may induce tolerance to insulin and protect against the development of type 1 diabetes. We herewith raise a hypothesis that human milk is protective against the development of type 1 diabetes by virtue of the effects of its substantial content of insulin.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15016183
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Wed May 28, 2014 11:50 am

Study shows brain cleaning through sleep:
http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/stor ... fm?id=3956
Quote
The new findings hinge on the discovery last year by Nedergaard and her colleagues of a previously unknown system of waste removal that is unique to the brain. The system responsible for disposing cellular waste in the rest of the body, the lymphatic system, does not extend to the brain. This is because the brain maintains its own closed “ecosystem” and is protected by a complex system molecular gateways – called the blood-brain barrier – that tightly control what enters and exits the brain.
My take
Sleep was first a chance to end the eating/digestion period, regroup needed water and hormones for next day digestion, and prepare waste out -bowel movement.

This evolved to include a brain resting period to clean out the brain (See study and video above) But more exactly a cleaning out of all BBB blood brain barrier places (brain, testes, eyes, ears, joints, spine)

Now why the NREM and REM?
My first guess is NREM is 'house maintenance' that includes getting digestive tract ready, flush all BBB sites, and deliver some hormones.
REM is waste out or a type of flush out of waste after the NREM period.

Tom
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Wed May 28, 2014 11:51 am

Study shows brain cleaning through sleep:
http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/stor ... fm?id=3956
Quote
The new findings hinge on the discovery last year by Nedergaard and her colleagues of a previously unknown system of waste removal that is unique to the brain. The system responsible for disposing cellular waste in the rest of the body, the lymphatic system, does not extend to the brain. This is because the brain maintains its own closed “ecosystem” and is protected by a complex system molecular gateways – called the blood-brain barrier – that tightly control what enters and exits the brain.
My take
Sleep was first a chance to end the eating/digestion period, regroup needed water and hormones for next day digestion, and prepare waste out -bowel movement.

This evolved to include a brain resting period to clean out the brain (See study and video above) But more exactly a cleaning out of all BBB blood brain barrier places (brain, testes, eyes, ears, joints, spine)

Now why the NREM and REM?
My first guess is NREM is 'house maintenance' that includes getting digestive tract ready, flush all BBB sites, and deliver some hormones.
REM is waste out or a type of flush out of waste after the NREM period.

Tom
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Sat May 31, 2014 12:01 pm

Day/night, led to catabolic/anabolic, led to wake/sleep? If we can find out why we sleep, it might open many doors and connect all this very long thread up.
Looking at the BBB, blood brain barrier, and sleep. Start with the study about the glymphatic system cleansing the brain at night (Rochester Univ) .
Maybe it's part of a bigger cleansing - that might include other parts of the blood barrier system (testis, joints, spine, etc). Maybe it's part of a sleep/cleaning. Maybe this is why we sleep.
Found this - see info below: What was interesting to me about this information, and perhaps a connection, is that the Pineal Gland is outside the BBB, AND secretes melatonin.
So what is the connection
Pineal gland is awake during sleep, secretes the sleep melatonin, is outside the BBB, is awake while glymphatic cleansing of brain in sleep.
So does that mean that sleep is for glymphatic cleaning of all blood barriers, or is it all body of which this is part or....

Background info:

The blood-brain barrier prevents toxic substances, large molecules, and neurotransmitters released in the blood from entering the brain.

Four areas of the brain are not protected by the blood-brain barrier. These areas include the posterior pituitary gland, pineal gland, the median eminence of the hypothalamus and the area postrema.

Posterior Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland releases the hormones oxytocin, which controls milk release, and vasopressin, which regulates water balance. The pituitary gland is not covered by the blood-brain barrier because the hormones it secretes need to go into circulation and pass through the rest of the body.

Pineal Gland
The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin, which controls circadian and seasonal rhythms, or sleep/wake cycles. The pineal gland is not covered by the blood brain-barrier because it secretes the hormone into the bloodstream.

Median Eminence of the Hypothalamus
The median eminence of the hypothalamus connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland. The median eminence is not covered by the blood brain-barrier because hormones secreted by the pituitary gland collect in this region before being secreted into the bloodstream.

The area postrema is not covered by the blood brain-barrier because it senses toxins in the blood that the other parts of the brain are protected from. The area postrema triggers nausea and vomiting to prevent further ingestion of toxins.
http://www.livestrong.com/article/16234 ... n-barrier/
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Sat Jun 07, 2014 1:06 pm

Suggestion that Two Parts Sleep NREM/REM correlate to Glymphatic Cleaning and Flush of Toxins of Brain and Blood Brain Areas
Figure out why we sleep and that will answer many questions. But why we sleep is very tough to answer.
Taking the glymphatic cleaning idea (see above) further.
1. Why in sleep?
Q: One of the clues hinting that the glymphatic system may be more active during sleep was the fact that the amount of energy consumed by the brain does not decrease dramatically while we sleep. Because pumping CSF demands a great deal of energy, researchers speculated that the process of cleaning may not be compatible with the functions the brain must perform when we are awake and actively processing information. AND
Q. Through a series of experiments in mice, the researchers observed that the glymphatic system was almost 10-fold more active during sleep and that the sleeping brain removed significantly more amyloid-beta.

2. Could this go beyond the area of the blood brain/spine barrier to other blood barriers (testis, eyes, ears, joints). Therefore sleep centers on blood barrier areas, while the lymphatic system does the rest. Then the question is – is that enough reason for 8 hours sleep!

Q. The system responsible for disposing cellular waste in the rest of the body, the lymphatic system, does not extend to the brain. This is because the brain maintains its own closed “ecosystem” and is protected by a complex system molecular gateways – called the blood-brain barrier – that tightly control what enters and exits the brain.

3. This seems like a two part process. 1. After the brain cells shrink 60 % cerebral spinal fluid is pumped through the brain’s tissue, then 2. the waste is flushed back into the circulatory system where it enters the blood circulation system and goes to the liver.

Q. Another startling finding was that the cells in the brain “shrink” by 60 percent during sleep. This contraction creates more space between the cells and allows CSF to wash more freely through the brain tissue. In contrast, when awake the brain’s cells are closer together, restricting the flow of CSF. AND
Q. Using these techniques, researchers were able to observe in mice – whose brains are remarkably similar to humans – what amounts to a plumbing system that piggybacks on the brain’s blood vessels and pumps cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) through the brain’s tissue, flushing waste back into the circulatory system where it eventually makes its way to the general blood circulation system and, ultimately, the liver.

4. Could this two part process 1. cleaning the brain (and all blood barrier areas>). 2. flushing the toxins relate to the two stages of sleep NREM (80% sleep) and REM (20% sleep) such that
NREM – 80% – cleaning the brain (and other blood barrier areas)
REM – 20% – flushing waste back into the circulatory system and to the liver.

Finding the answer to why we sleep will open all kinds of doors to our health and well being, and our understanding of many aspects of our life

http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/stor ... fm?id=3956

Final Quote:. The pathway consists of a para-arterial influx route for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to enter the brain parenchyma, coupled to a clearance mechanism for the removal of interstitial fluid (ISF) and extracellular solutes from the interstitial compartments of the brain and spinal cord. Exchange of solutes between the CSF and the ISF is driven by arterial pulsation and regulated during sleep by the expansion and contraction of brain extracellular space.
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:37 am

Why do we sleep? Why do we have chronic pain?
Suggestion that sleep is to cleanse all the areas of the body that have blood barriers.
Suggestion that without sleep, chronic pain develops in these blood barrier areas.

Sleep may be key for reducing pain. Sleep may be to cleanse those areas outside of the blood stream, or blood barriers.
There is a study that shows that during sleep the blood brain area is cleared through the glymphatic system (see below) . I suggest that this extends to the other blood barrier areas in the body too and that is why we sleep.

blood brain barrier (headaches)
blood spine barrier (back problems)
blood eye barrier (eye strain)
blood ear barrier (ear aches)
blood joint barriers (joint pain)
blood germ cell areas (sexual dysfunction)

Suggestion that the body, during sleep, works from head down and repeats the process 4 or 5 times a night – 4 or 5 cycles of NREM then REM.

NREM (80% of the time) active glymphatic system in blood barriers in brain, eyes, ears, (head area)
REM (20% of the time) active glymphatic system in blood barriers in spine, germ cells, joints. (body area)

BRAIN – BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER
SPINAL CORD – BLOOD SPINAL CHORD BARRIER
EYES – BLOOD RETINAL BARRIER
INNER EAR – BLOOD LABYRINTH BARRIER
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM – BLOOD NERVE BARRIER
JOINTS – BLOOD SYNOVIAL BARRIER
TESTIS – BLOOD TESTIS BARRIER

Report on Glymphatic system, brain, and sleep.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 142042.htm

—————–

These posts are built on the premise of the evolution of catabolic and anabolic processes to other separate deconstructive and constructive processes.
Catabolic and anabolic processes evolve but they do not blend
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Mon Jul 07, 2014 11:53 am

Biological basis for happiness?
This is speculation, but it seems likely that happiness may be something naturally selected for.
For example we feel happy after we eat, after sex, around newborn babies and cute kids, etc.
That would support eating enough, procreating, and raising children.
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Fri Jul 18, 2014 9:57 am

This is a diagram showing hydrogen bonds.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 141755.htm
This illustrates one of my contentions about why we have 4 DNA bases. The reason is that those 4 bases make two sets.

The two sets are different in that G-C has 3 hydrogen bonds, and A-T two.
That means that each has a slight selection advantage.
The G-C is slightly more stable and will denature at a higher temp.
The A-T is slightly less stable, more active, and will denature at a lower temp
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby colinwesley » Sat Sep 27, 2014 3:24 am

Planning a vacation is always exciting especially if you have a lot of savings. You will surely get to visit the places that you want to go. Airfares are going up, in spite of the belief that business and personal air travel is also on the rise. The air industry blames federal laws and taxation for the increases, and recently stood up to Congress to say "enough." In the meantime, economical travelers can find big savings by shopping smart and thinking outside of the box. Pay for your trip with a short term loan. If you need to buy tickets earlier, you should try availing a short term loan if you need financial help. You will surely be able to book your flights earlier than expected.
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby hyper » Sun Oct 05, 2014 3:52 am

May I suggest looking in to some alternative opinions about almost any human subject.

All based on current problems in society in one way or another. In fact solutions for existing and coming problems.

The Venus project ( resourced based economy )
The Zeitgeist movement ( understanding principals of society )
Free domain radio ( many philosophical debates on society and modus operandi )

All worth the time and exploration, not for being the ultimate solutions, but for alternative thought on many subject relating to humanity at large.
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby Tom Hendricks » Sun Oct 05, 2014 8:53 am

There is always room for new ideas.
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Re: The Biggest Scientific Story that is Too Obvious To See

Postby AlexG » Mon Jan 26, 2015 6:42 am

Nice insight.
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